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What contributes to China's "coercive occupation" of entities in the South China Sea

What contributes to Chinas coercive occupation of entities in the South China Sea a historical perspectiveExisting statistics show that China has been engaged in 23 territorial disputes with other countries since its foundation in 1949, among which there have been 6 involving military force, with 16 expeditions. In the South China Sea, China uses its overwhelming military power, proactively attacks and illegally occupies other countries' structures to execute its plan of "domination" in this critical sea. Under the current circumstance, which China is all the more determined to realise its "Chinese Dream", Beijing has been making proactive and coercive actions in the South China Sea. This means under favourable conditions China is likely to use force to occupy new entities in this sea.

QUAD: the Arc over China

QUAD the Arc over ChinaOn October 13, 2020, in Kuala Lumpur, speaking to the press after holding talks with Malaysian Foreign Minister Hishammuddin Hussein, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi said the strategic cooperation among the US, Japan, Australia and India in the form of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue is part of Washington's efforts to build a "NATO in the Indo-Pacific region". This statement is in stark contrast to his own view of QUAD in 2017 when the four leaders of the US, Japan, Australia and India met in Manila for the first time on the sidelines of the ASEAN Summit. At that time, Mr. Wang Yi said that the meeting among the four leaders of QUAD was merely "an idea to attract the attention of the press" and "they are like sponges in the Pacific Ocean or the Indian Ocean: they attract some interest and then quickly disappear". So why, in such a short time, has the chief of China's diplomatic service profoundly changed his assessment of QUAD, plus showing real concern about this cooperation mechanism?

Exposing Beijing's absurd allegations about the Award of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

Exposing Beijings absurd allegations about the Award of the Permanent Court of Arbitration PCA in the HagueSince early 2013 when the Philippines filed a case against China in the Arbitral Tribunal established under Annex VII of the UNCLOS, China has stated that it will neither accept nor participate in this arbitration. In 2014 position paper, China argued that the disputes between China and the Philippines as well as those with other countries in the region are not subject to arbitration because they are matters of sovereignty, which falls beyond the jurisdiction of the Tribunal. As a result, Chinese legal experts insist that the arbitration initiated by the Philippines has "no legal validity".

Canada and the South China Sea

Canada and the South China SeaGiven the increasingly complicated situation in the South China Sea due to China's accelerating militarization (building military bases on the features that China illegally occupied and expanded in the South China Sea) and escalating aggressive and coercive activities with neighboring countries along the South China Sea, threatening security, safety, freedom of navigation and over-flight in the South China Sea, Canada has gradually adjusted its policy on the South China Sea, from only affirming their general position in support of international law to taking specific actions in the South China Sea.

The Validity of "historical facts" under International Law and Practices

The Validity of historical facts under International Law and PracticesOn 4 August 2021, Chinese State Councillor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi presented China's principled position on the South China Sea issue at the 11th East Asia Summit Foreign Ministers' Meeting. Accordingly, he called on all parties to adhere to the "four respects" on the South China Sea issue and urged extraterritorial forces to stop intervening in the South China Sea.

Reasons for Indonesia to foster its naval power just now

Reasons for Indonesia to foster its naval power just nowOn 10th June 2021, Fincantieri - an Italian shipbuilding company – announced that it had signed a contract with the Indonesian Ministry of Defense to supply Jakarta with eight frigates, including six multipurpose frigates FREMM and 2 Maestrale class frigates that have been used by the Italian Navy. According to Fincantieri, the agreement is of the utmost importance to strengthen the collaboration between two countries in a strategic area of the Pacific. Both parties have not divulged the information about the contract's value and the delivery of these frigates. However, the two Maestrale class frigates will be delivered to the Indonesian Navy only after the Italian Navy decommissions these frigates and Fincantieri refurbishes them.

Defence White Paper 2021 and Brunei’s approach to the South China Sea issue

Defence White Paper 2021 and Bruneis approach to the South China Sea issueIn late May 2021, Brunei published the updated Defence White Paper 2021 right on the Royal Brunei Armed Forces (RBAF)'s 60th Anniversary. Despite being a plan obscured by international affairs as well as some other hot issues, the Defence White Paper 2021 is deemed to reflect Brunei’s current defence perception and how its policy makers adjust to meet the priorities of both domestic and foreign policy. The Defence White Paper 2021 indicates Brunei’s new and cautious approach to the South China Sea issue.

Though rich in natural resources, Brunei is a small country. Thus, Brunei is sometimes neglected in Southeast Asia. According to some scholars, as a direct stakeholder having a "silent sovereignty claim" in the South China Sea dispute, Brunei may influence regional security developments and ASEAN activities in many ways.

Beijing - The destroyer of ecological environment in the South China Sea

BeijingThe destroyer of ecological environment in the South China SeaThe South China Sea is among the most resource-rich areas in the world, with about 190,000 billion cubic feet of natural gas and 11 billion barrels of oil reserves. Its special location, geography and climate have given the South China Sea a high biodiversity compared to other regions in the world.

To date, there are about 11,000 species discovered in this area, inhabiting in more than 20 types of typical ecosystems. Among these, there are about 6,000 benthic species, 2,038 fish species, over 100 commercially important fish species, more than 300 species of hard coral, 653 species of seaweed, 657 species of zooplankton, 537 species of phytoplankton, and 94 species of mangroves, 225shrimp species, 14 species of seagrass, 15 species of sea snakes, 12 species of marine mammal and 5 species of sea turtles. Though the South China Sea is "rich" as such, it is facing extremely serious threats from over-exploitation of marine resources and the increasing destruction of the environment and ecosystems inside and around the coral reefs off the South China Sea…

Behind Washington DC’s intense moves in the region and South China Sea in July 2021

Behind Washington DCs intense moves in the region and South China Sea in July 2021Last July saw the US’s intense moves in the Southeast Asia:

First, on July 14, the special ASEAN-US Foreign Ministerial Meeting was held virtually after being delayed due to technical issues for over a month. As for the late arrangement, originally scheduled on June 25, 2021, the US State Department Spokesperson Ned Price, on the behalf of US Secretary of State Blinken, sent an apology to ASEAN ministers. and at the same time, reaffirming the US commitment to ASEAN centrality and the Association’s essential role in the Indo-Pacific regional architecture”. The Spokesperson of the US National Security Council affirmed that Washington has prepared for several high-level meetings with ASEAN to discuss various issues.

Revisting The Hague PCA Arbitral Award on South China Sea five years on

Revisting The Hague PCA Arbitral   Award on South China Sea five years onFive years ago, on July 12, 2016, the Tribunal on the South China Sea case, established by the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) in The Hague under Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982, rendered a verdict representing an almost absolute victory for the Philippines on most of their submissions. For five years, the legal struggle in the South China Sea has witnessed many important new developments, especially in the past year. Let's revisit this historic event together.

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